WPA Pool | Rules
WPA Pool | Rules

THE RULE BOOK

World Pool Rules

Rules of Play

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1. General Rules

The following General Rules apply to all the games covered by these rules except when contradicted by specific game rules. In addition, the Regulations of Pool Billiards cover aspects of the game not directly related to the game rules, such as equipment specifications and organization of events.

The games of Pool Billiards are played on a flat table covered with cloth and bounded by rubber cushions. The player uses a stick (pool cue) to strike a cue ball which in turn strikes object balls. The goal is to drive object balls into six pockets located at the cushion boundary. The games vary according to which balls are legal targets and the requirements to win a match.

[Editorial comments on the U.S. English version: The masculine gender has been used for simplicity of wording and is not intended to specify the gender of the players or officials. The word “game” is used to refer to a discipline such as nine ball rather than a rack or a match.]

1.1 Player’s Responsibility

It is the player’s responsibility to be aware of all rules, regulations and schedules applying to competition. While tournament officials will make every reasonable effort to have such information readily available to all players as appropriate, the ultimate responsibility rests with the player.

1.2 Lagging to Determine Order of Play

The lag is the first shot of the match and determines order of play. The player who wins the lag chooses who will shoot first.

The referee will place a ball on each side of the table behind the head string and near the head string. The players will shoot at about the same time to make each ball contact the foot cushion with the goal of returning the ball closer to the head cushion than the opponent.

A lag shot is bad and cannot win if the shooter’s ball:

(a) crosses the long string;
(b) contacts the foot cushion other than once;
(c) is pocketed or driven off the table;
(d) touches the side cushion; or
(e) the ball rests within the corner pocket and past the nose of the head cushion.
In addition, a lag will be bad if any non-object-ball foul occurs other than 6.9 Balls Still Moving.

The players will lag again if:
(a) a player’s ball is struck after the other ball has touched the foot cushion;
(b) the referee cannot determine which ball has stopped closer to the head cushion; or
(c) both lags are bad.

1.3 Player’s Use of Equipment

The equipment must meet existing WPA equipment specifications. In general, players are not permitted to introduce novel equipment into the game. The following uses, among others, are considered normal. If the player is uncertain about a particular use of equipment, he should discuss it with the tournament management prior to the start of play. The equipment must be used only for the purpose or in the manner that the equipment was intended. (See 6.17 Unsportsmanlike Conduct.)

(a) Cue Stick – The player is permitted to switch between cue sticks during the match, such as break, jump and normal cues. He may use either a built-in extender or an add-on extender to increase the length of the stick.
(b) Chalk – The player may apply chalk to his tip to prevent miscues, and may use his own chalk, provided its color is compatible with the cloth.
(c) Mechanical Bridges – The player may use up to two mechanical bridges to support the cue stick during the shot. The configuration of the bridges is up to the player. He may use his own bridge if it is similar to standard bridges.
(d) Gloves – The player may use gloves to improve the grip and/or bridge hand function.
(e) Powder – A player is allowed to use powder in a reasonable amount as determined by the referee.

1.4 Spotting Balls

Balls are spotted (returned to play on the table) by placing them on the long string (long axis of the table) as close as possible to the foot spot and between the foot spot and the foot rail, without moving any interfering ball. If the spotted ball cannot be placed on the foot spot, it should be placed in contact (if possible) with the corresponding interfering ball. However, when the cue ball is next to the spotted ball, the spotted ball should not be placed in contact with the cue ball; a small separation must be maintained. If all of the long string below the foot spot is blocked by other balls, the ball is spotted above the foot spot, and as close as possible to the foot spot.

1.5 Cue Ball in Hand

When the cue ball is in hand, the shooter may place the cue ball anywhere on the playing surface (see 8.1 Parts of the Table) and may continue to move the cue ball until he executes a shot. (See definition 8.2 Shot.) Players may use any part of the cue stick to move the cue ball, including the tip, but not with a forward stroke motion. In some games and for most break shots, placement of the cue ball may be restricted to the area behind the head string depending on the rules of the game, and then 6.10 Bad Cue Ball Placement and 6.11 Bad Play from Behind the Head String may apply.

When the shooter has the cue ball in hand behind the head string and all the legal object balls are behind the head string, he may request the legal object ball nearest the head string to be spotted. If two or more balls are equal distance from the head string, the shooter may designate which of the equidistant balls is to be spotted. An object ball that rests exactly on the head string is playable.

1.6 Standard Call Shot

In games in which the shooter is required to call shots, the intended ball and pocket must be indicated for each shot if they are not obvious. Details of the shot, such as cushions struck or other balls contacted or pocketed are irrelevant. Only one ball may be called on each shot.

For a called shot to count, the referee must be satisfied that the intended shot was made, so if there is any chance of confusion, e.g. with bank, combination and similar shots, the shooter should indicate the ball and pocket. If the referee or opponent is unsure of the shot to be played, he may ask for a call.

In call shot games, the shooter may choose to call “safety” instead of a ball and pocket, and then play passes to the opponent at the end of the shot. Whether balls are being spotted after safeties depends on the rules of the particular game.

1.7 Balls Settling

A ball may settle slightly after it appears to have stopped, possibly due to slight imperfections in the ball or the table. Unless this causes a ball to fall into a pocket, it is considered a normal hazard of play, and the ball will not be moved back. If a ball falls into a pocket as the result of such settling, it is restored as closely as possible to its original position. If a settling ball falls into a pocket during or just prior to a shot, and this has an effect on the shot, the referee will restore the position and the shot will be replayed. The shooter is not penalized for shooting while a ball is settling. See also 8.3 Ball Pocketed.

1.8 Restoring a Position

When necessary for balls to be restored or cleaned, the referee will restore disturbed balls to their original positions to the best of his ability. The players must accept the referee’s judgment as to placement.

1.9 Outside Interference

When outside interference occurs during a shot that has an effect on the outcome of that shot, the referee will restore the balls to the positions they had before the shot, and the shot will be replayed. If the interference had no effect on the shot, the referee will restore the disturbed balls and play will continue. If the balls cannot be restored to their original positions, the situation is handled like a stalemate.

1.10 Prompting Calls and Protesting Rulings

If a player feels that the referee has made an error in judgment, he may ask the referee to reconsider his call or lack of call, but the referee’s decision on judgment calls is final. However, if the player feels that the referee is not applying the rules correctly, he may ask for ruling by the designated appeals authority. The referee will suspend play while this appeal is in process. (See also part (d) of 6.17 Unsportsmanlike Conduct.) Fouls must be called promptly. (See 6. Fouls.)

1.11 Concession

If a player concedes, he loses the match. For example, if a player unscrews his jointed playing cue stick while the opponent is at the table and during the opponent’s decisive rack of a match, it will be considered a concession of the match.

1.12 Stalemate

If the referee observes that no progress is being made towards a conclusion, he will announce his decision, and each player will have three more turns at the table. Then, if the referee determines that there is still no progress, he will declare a stalemate. If both players agree, they may accept the stalemate without taking their three additional turns. The procedure for a stalemate is specified under the rules for each game.

2. Nine Ball

Nine ball is played with nine object balls numbered one through nine and the cue ball. The balls are played in ascending numerical order. The player legally pocketing the nine ball wins the rack.

2.1 Determining the Break

The player who wins the lag chooses who will break the first rack. (See 1.2 Lagging to Determine Order of Play.) The standard format is to alternate the break, but see Regulation 16, Subsequent Break Shots.

2.2 Nine Ball Rack

The object balls are racked as tightly as possible in a diamond shape, with the one ball at the apex of the diamond and on the foot spot and the nine ball in the middle of the diamond. The other balls will be placed in the diamond without purposeful or intentional pattern.
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2.3 Legal Break Shot

The following rules apply to the break shot:
(a) the cue ball begins in hand behind the head string;
(b) if no ball is pocketed, at least four object balls must be driven to one or more rails, or the shot is a foul
(c) additionally, and only when Three Point Break Rule is used, if no ball is pocketed, three balls must touch the head string, or the break is considered ‘illegal break’. (See Regulation 18, Three Point Break Rule.)

2.4 Second Shot of the Rack – Push Out

If no foul is committed on the break shot, the shooter may choose to play a “push out” as his shot. He must make his intention known to the referee, and then rules 6.2 Wrong Ball First and 6.3 No Rail after Contact are suspended for the shot. If no foul is committed on a push out, the other player chooses who will shoot next.

2.5 Continuing Play

If the shooter legally pockets any ball on a shot (except a push out, see 2.4 Second Shot of the Rack – Push Out), he continues at the table for the next shot. If he legally pockets the nine ball on any shot (except a push out), he wins the rack. If the shooter fails to pocket a ball or fouls, play passes to the other player, and if no foul was committed, the incoming player must play the cue ball from the position left by the other player.

2.6 Spotting Balls

If the nine ball is pocketed on a foul or push out, or driven off the table, it is spotted. (See 1.4 Spotting Balls.) No other object ball is ever spotted.

2.7 Standard Fouls

If the shooter commits a standard foul, play passes to his opponent. The cue ball is in hand, and the incoming player may place it anywhere on the playing surface. (See 1.5 Cue Ball in Hand) The following are standard fouls at nine ball:

6.1 Cue Ball Scratch or off the Table
6.2 Wrong Ball First The first object ball contacted by the cue ball on each shot must be the
lowest-numbered ball remaining on the table.
6.3 No Rail after Contact
6.4 No Foot on Floor
6.5 Ball Driven off the Table The only jumped object ball that is spotted is the nine.
6.6 Touched Ball
6.7 Double Hit / Frozen Balls
6.8 Push Shot
6.9 Balls Still Moving
6.10 Bad Cue Ball Placement
6.12 Cue Stick on the Table
6.13 Playing out of Turn
6.15 Slow Play
6.16 Ball Rack Template Foul

2.8 Serious Fouls

For 6.14 Three Consecutive Fouls, the penalty is loss of the current rack. For 6.17 Unsportsmanlike Conduct, the referee will choose a penalty appropriate given the nature of the offense.

2.9 Stalemate

If a stalemate occurs the original breaker of the rack will break again. (See 1.12 Stalemate.)

3. Eight Ball

Eight ball is played with fifteen numbered object balls and the cue ball. The shooter’s group of seven balls (one through seven or nine through fifteen) must all be off the table before he attempts to pocket the eight ball to win. Shots are called.

3.1 Determining First Break

The player winning the lag has the option to determine who has to execute the first break shot. (See 1.2 Lagging to Determine Order of Play.) The standard format is alternate break (See Regulation 16, Subsequent Break Shots.)

3.2 Eight Ball Rack

The fifteen object balls are racked as tightly as possible in a triangle, with the apex ball on the foot spot and the eight ball as the first ball that is directly below the apex ball. One from each group of seven will be on the two lower corners of the triangle. The other balls are placed in the triangle without purposeful or intentional pattern.

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3.3 Break Shot

The following rules apply to the break shot:

(a) The cue ball begins in hand behind the head string. (b) No ball is called, and the cue ball is not required to hit any particular object ball first.
(c) If the breaker pockets a ball and does not foul, he continues at the table, and the table remains open. (See 3.4 Open Table / Choosing Groups.)
(d) If no object ball is pocketed, at least four object balls must be driven to one or more rails, or the shot results in an illegal break, and the incoming player has the option of

(1) accepting the table in position, or
(2) re-racking and breaking, or
(3) re-racking and allowing the offending player to break again.

(e) Pocketing the eight ball on a legal break shot is not a foul. If the eight ball is pocketed, the breaker has the option of

(1) re-spotting the eight ball and accepting the balls in position, or
(2) re-breaking.

(f) If the breaker pockets the eight ball and scratches (see definition 8.6 Scratch), the opponent has the option of Spot Version 15.03.2016 Version 15/03/2016 – The Rules of Play Page 10 of 28

(1) re-spotting the eight ball and shooting with cue ball in hand behind the head string; or
(2) re-breaking.

(g) If any object ball is driven off the table on a break shot, it is a foul; such balls remain out of play (except the eight ball which is re-spotted); and the incoming player has the option of

(1) accepting the table in position, or
(2) taking cue ball in hand behind the head string.

(h) If the breaker fouls in any manner not listed above, the following player has the option of

(1) accepting the balls in position, or
(2) taking cue ball in hand behind the head string.

3.4 Open Table / Choosing Groups

Before groups are determined, the table is said to be “open,” and before each shot, the shooter must call his intended ball. If the shooter legally pockets his called ball, the corresponding group becomes his, and his opponent is assigned the other group. If he fails to legally pocket his called ball, the table remains open and play passes to the other player. When the table is “open”, any object ball may be struck first except the eight ball.

3.5 Continuing Play

The shooter remains at the table as long as he continues to legally pocket called balls, or he wins the rack by pocketing the eight ball.

3.6 Shots Required to Be Called

On each shot except the break, shots must be called as explained in 1.6 Standard Call Shot. The eight ball may be called only after the shot on which the shooter’s group has been cleared from the table. The shooter may call “safety” in which case play passes to the opponent at the end of the shot and any object ball pocketed on the safety remains pocketed. (See 8.17 Safety Shot.)

3.7 Spotting Balls

If the eight ball is pocketed or driven off the table on the break, it will be spotted or the balls will be re-racked. (See 3.3 Break Shot and 1.4 Spotting Balls.) No other object ball is ever spotted.

3.8 Losing the Rack

The shooter loses if he
(a) pockets the eight ball and fouls.;
(b) pockets the eight ball before his group is cleared;
(c) pockets the eight ball in an uncalled pocket; or
(d) drives the eight ball off the table.
These do not apply to the break shot. (See 3.3 Break Shot.)

3.9 Standard Fouls

If the shooter commits a foul, play passes to his opponent. The cue ball is in hand, and the incoming player may place it anywhere on the playing surface. (See 1.5 Cue Ball in Hand.) The following are standard fouls at eight ball:

6.1 Cue Ball Scratch or off the Table
6.2 Wrong Ball First The first ball contacted by the cue ball on each shot must belong to the shooter’s group, except when the table is open. (See 3.4 Open Table / Choosing Groups).
6.3 No Rail after Contact
6.4 No Foot on Floor
6.5 Ball Driven off the Table (See 3.7 Spotting Balls.)
6.6 Touched Ball
6.7 Double Hit / Frozen Balls
6.8 Push Shot
6.9 Balls Still Moving
6.10 Bad Cue Ball Placement
6.11 Bad Play from Behind the Head String
6.12 Cue Stick on the Table
6.13 Playing out of Turn
6.15 Slow Play
6.16 Ball Rack Template Foul

3.10 Serious Fouls

The fouls listed under 3.8 Losing the Rack are penalized by the loss of the current rack. For 6.17 Unsportsmanlike Conduct, the referee will choose a penalty appropriate given the nature of the offense.

3.11 Stalemate

If a stalemate occurs (see 1.12 Stalemate), the original breaker of the rack will break again.

4. 14.1 Continuous Pool

14.1 Continuous Pool, also known as straight pool, is played with fifteen numbered balls and the cue ball. Each ball pocketed on a legal called shot counts one point and the first player to reach the required score wins the match. 14.1 is continuous in that after fourteen balls are pocketed, they are re-racked and the shooter continues.

4.1 Lagging for the Break

Players lag to determine who will shoot first. (See 1.2 Lagging to Determine Order of Play)

4.2 The 14.1 Rack

For an opening break shot, the fifteen balls are racked in a triangle with the apex ball on the foot spot. When the balls are re-racked, the apex ball is committed if only fourteen balls are being racked. The marked outline of the triangle will be used to determine whether an intended break ball is in the rack area. When ball rack template is used at 14.1 the outline of a triangle will still be drawn for the purpose of deciding whether a ball is in the rack area..

4.3 Opening Break Shot

The following rules apply to the opening break shot:
(a) The cue ball begins in hand behind the head string.
(b) If no called ball is pocketed, the cue ball and two object balls must each be driven to a rail after the cue ball contacts the rack or the shot is a breaking foul. (See 8.4 Driven to a Rail.) This is penalized by subtracting two points from the breaker’s score. (See 4.10 Breaking Foul.) The non-breaking player may accept the balls in position or may require the breaker to play another opening break shot, until he satisfies the requirements for an opening break or the non-shooting player accepts the table in position. (See 4.11 Serious Fouls)

4.4 Continuing Play and Winning the Game

The shooter remains at the table as long as he continues to legally pocket called balls or wins the game by scoring the required number of points. When fourteen balls from a rack have been legally pocketed, play is suspended until the balls are re-racked.

4.5 Shots Required to Be Called

Shots must be called as explained in 1.6 Standard Call Shot. The shooter may call “safety” in which case play passes to the opponent at the end of the shot and any object ball pocketed on the safety is spotted.

4.6 Spotting Balls

All balls pocketed on fouls, or on safeties, or without a called ball having been pocketed, and all balls driven off the table are spotted. (See 1.4 Spotting Balls.) If the fifteenth ball of a rack needs to be spotted and the fourteen balls have not been touched, the fifteenth ball will spot on the apex spot and the referee may use the triangle to assure a tight rack.

4.7 Scoring

The shooter scores one point for legally pocketing a called shot. Each additional ball pocketed on such a shot also counts one point. Fouls are penalized by subtracting points from the offending player’s score. Scores may be negative due to penalties from fouls.

4.8 Special Racking Situations

When the cue ball or fifteenth object ball interferes with racking fourteen balls for a new rack, the following special rules apply. A ball is considered to interfere with the rack if it is within or overlaps the outline of the rack. The referee will state when asked whether a ball interferes with the rack.

(a) If the fifteenth ball was pocketed on the shot that scored the fourteenth ball, all fifteen balls are re-racked.
(b) If both balls interfere, all fifteen balls are re-racked and the cue ball is in hand behind the head string.
(c) If only the object ball interferes, it is placed on the head spot or the center spot if the cue ball blocks the head spot.
(d) If only the cue ball interferes, then it is placed as follows: if the object ball is in front of or on the head string, the cue ball is in hand behind the head string; if the object ball is behind the head string, the cue ball is spotted on the head spot, or on the center spot if the head spot is blocked.

In any case, there is no restriction on which object ball the shooter may play as the first shot of the new rack.
If the cue ball or object ball is barely outside the marked rack area and it is time to rack, the referee should mark the position of the ball to allow it to be accurately replaced if it is accidently moved by the referee when racking.

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4.9 Standard Fouls

If the shooter commits a standard foul, a point is subtracted from his score, balls are spotted as necessary, and play passes to his opponent. The cue ball remains in position except as noted below. The following are standard fouls at 14.1:

6.1 Cue Ball Scratch or off the Table The cue ball is in hand behind the head string (see 1.5 Cue Ball in Hand).
6.3 No Rail after Contact
6.4 No Foot on Floor
6.5 Ball Driven off the Table (All object balls driven off the table are respotted.)
6.6 Touched Ball
6.7 Double Hit / Frozen Balls
6.8 Push Shot
6.9 Balls Still Moving
6.10 Bad Cue Ball Placement
6.11 Bad Play from Behind the Head String For a foul under the second paragraph of 6.11, the cue ball is in hand behind the head string for the incoming player.
6.12 Cue Stick on the Table
6.13 Playing out of Turn
6.15 Slow Play¸
6.16 Ball Rack Template Foul

4.10 Breaking Foul

A breaking foul is penalized by the loss of two points as mentioned under 4.3 Opening Break Shot, as well as a possible re-break. If both a standard foul and a breaking foul happen on one shot, it is considered a breaking foul.

4.11 Serious Fouls

For Rule 6.14 Three Consecutive Fouls, only standard fouls are counted, so a breaking foul does not count as one of the three fouls. A point is subtracted for the third foul as usual, and then the additional fifteen-point penalty is subtracted and the offending player’s consecutive foul count is reset to zero. All fifteen balls are re-racked and the offending player is required to shoot under the requirements of the opening break. For 6.17 Unsportsmanlike Conduct, the referee will choose a penalty depending on the nature of the offense.

4.12 Stalemate

If a stalemate occurs (see 1.12 Stalemate), the players will lag again to determine who will shoot an opening break.

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5. Black Ball

Black ball is played with 15 colored object balls and the cue ball. The object balls are two groups of seven and the black ball. The player or team pocketing their group of object balls and legally pocketing the black ball wins the game. Shots are not called.

5.1 Definitions

In addition to definitions defined in 8. Definitions Used in the Rules, the following definitions apply to black ball:

Free shot
After a foul has been committed the incoming player is awarded a free shot. On a free shot Rule 6.2 Wrong Ball First is suspended and the player may take the cue ball in position or in hand in baulk.

Baulk
Baulk is the rectangular area of the table that is bordered by the baulk line and the three cushions at the head of the table. The baulk line is parallel to the head rail and one fifth of the length of the playing surface away from the head cushion. For the applicable general rules, “behind the head string” should be read as “in baulk.”

Snookered
A player is said to be snookered when the cue ball has no straight, direct path to hit at least part of a legal target ball. The snooker must be declared by the referee for it to be in effect.

Ball On
An object ball is said to be “on” when it is a legal target for the shooter.

5.2 Equipment

The fifteen object balls include two groups of seven balls distinguished by two solid colors or by the usual pattern of numbered solids and stripes. (One through seven and nine through fifteen are the two groups.) In addition, there is a black ball or a black eight ball. The foot spot and the baulk line should be marked.

5.3 Determining First Break

The player winning the lag has the option to determine who has to execute the first break shot. (See 1.2 Lagging to Determine Order of Play ) The standard format is alternate break (see Regulations).

5.4 Black Ball Rack

The balls are racked as illustrated with the black ball on the foot spot.

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5.5 Break Shot

The following rules apply to the break shot.
(a) The cue ball begins in hand in baulk.
(b) At least one ball must be pocketed or at least two object balls must cross the center string or the break shot is a foul.
(c) If the black ball is pocketed on the break, all the balls are re-racked and the same player breaks again. Any violation of 6.1 Cue Ball Scratch or off the Table or 6.5 Ball Driven off the Table is ignored on a break that pockets the black ball.

5.6 Open Table / Choosing Groups

The table is said to be “open” when the players’ groups have not been decided. The table is open after the break shot and remains open until the shooter pockets balls from only one group on a legal normal shot, which means not a break shot and not a free shot. The shooter is then assigned that group of balls to pocket and the opponent is assigned the other group.

5.7 Continuing Play

The shooter remains at the table as long as he continues to legally pocket balls or the rack ends. If he fails to legally pocket a ball but commits no foul, the opponent shoots from the position left.

5.8 Cue Ball in Hand in Baulk

When the player has the cue ball in hand, he may place it by hand anywhere in baulk. The player may continue to adjust the position of the cue ball by hand until he takes a shot. The cue ball is not required to leave baulk before striking an object ball.

5.9 Touching Balls

If the cue ball is touching an object ball, the shooter must not play the cue ball in the direction of that ball. He is considered to have hit the touching ball when he shoots away from it if the ball is on for the shot.

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5.10 Playing from a Snooker

When the shooter is snookered, Rule 6.3 No Rail after Contact is suspended for the shot.

5.11 Spotting Balls

Object balls driven off the table are spotted on the long string. If several balls are to be spotted, they are spotted in the following order:
(1) the black ball, (2) balls from the group of the next shooter, or balls from the red, blue or solid group if the table is open, (3) other balls.

5.12 Stalemate

In case of a stalemate due to lack of progress towards a conclusion, the breaker of the rack will break again. A stalemate also occurs if the position does not allow any legal shot.

5.13 Standard Fouls

If the shooter commits a foul, play passes to his opponent. The incoming player has one free shot (see Free shot) as the first shot of his inning.

The following are standard fouls at black ball:
6.1 Cue Ball Scratch or off the Table
6.2 Wrong Ball First (suspended for a free shot)
6.3 No Rail after Contact
6.4 No Foot on Floor
6.5 Ball Driven off the Table
6.6 Touched Ball
6.7 Double Hit / Frozen Balls
6.8 Push Shot
6.9 Balls Still Moving
6.10 Bad Cue Ball Placement (when playing from baulk)
6.12 Cue Stick on the Table
6.13 Playing out of Turn
6.15 Slow Play
6.16 Ball Rack Template Foul

The following additional situations are fouls at black ball.
5.13.1 – Pocketing Opponent’s Ball – It is a foul to pocket an opponent’s ball without also pocketing a ball from your own group.
5.13 2 – Table Incorrect – It is a foul to play before all balls that require spotting have been spotted.
5.13.3 – Jump Shot. – Causing the cue ball to jump over any ball is a foul. (If the cue ball leaves the bed of the table and misses an object ball that would have been struck had the cue ball not left the table on an otherwise identical shot, the cue ball is deemed to have jumped over that object ball.)

5.14 Loss of Rack Fouls

The player loses the rack if he:
(a) pockets the black ball on an illegal shot;
(b) pockets the black ball on a shot that leaves any of his group of balls on the table;
(c) intentionally violates 6.2 Wrong Ball First; or
(d) does not attempt to hit a ball on.
6.17 Unsportsmanlike Conduct will be penalized by loss of rack or other penalty depending on the nature of the conduct.

6. Fouls

The following actions are fouls at pool when included in the specific rules of the game being played. If several fouls occur on one shot, only the most serious one is enforced. If a foul is not called before the next shot begins, the foul is assumed not to have happened.

6.1 Cue Ball Scratch or off the Table

If the cue ball is pocketed or driven off the table, the shot is a foul. See 8.3 Ball Pocketed and 8.5 Driven off the Table.

6.2 Wrong Ball First

In those games which require the first object ball struck to be a particular ball or one of a group of balls, it is a foul for the cue ball to first contact any other ball.

6.3 No Rail after Contact

If no ball is pocketed on a shot, the cue ball must contact an object ball, and after that contact at least one ball (cue ball or any object ball) must be driven to a rail, or the shot is a foul. (See 8.4 Driven to a Rail.)

6.4 No Foot on Floor

If the shooter does not have at least one foot touching the floor at the instant the tip contacts the cue ball, the shot is a foul.

6.5 Ball Driven off the Table

It is a foul to drive an object ball off the table. Whether that ball is spotted depends on the rules of the game. (See 8.5 Driven off the Table.)

6.6 Touched Ball

It is a foul to touch, move or change the path of any object ball except by the normal ball-toball contacts during shots. It is a foul to touch, move or change the path of the cue ball except when it is in hand or by the normal tip-to-ball forward stroke contact of a shot. The shooter is responsible for the equipment he controls at the table, such as chalk, bridges, clothing, his hair, parts of his body, and the cue ball when it is in hand, that may be involved in such fouls. If such a foul is accidental, it is a standard foul, but if it is intentional, it is 6.17 Unsportsmanlike Conduct.

6.7 Double Hit / Frozen Balls

If the cue stick contacts the cue ball more than once on a shot, the shot is a foul. If the cue ball is close to but not touching an object ball and the cue tip is still on the cue ball when the cue ball contacts that object ball, the shot is a foul. If the cue ball is very close to an object ball, and the shooter barely grazes that object ball on the shot, the shot is assumed not to violate the first paragraph of this rule, even though the tip is arguably still on the cue ball when ball-ball contact is made.

However, if the cue ball is touching an object ball at the start of the shot, it is legal to shoot towards or partly into that ball (provided it is a legal target within the rules of the game) and if the object ball is moved by such a shot, it is considered to have been contacted by the cue ball. (Even though it may be legal to shoot towards such a touching or “frozen” ball, care must be taken not to violate the rules in the first paragraph if there are additional balls close by.)

The cue ball is assumed not to be touching any ball unless it is declared touching by the referee or opponent. It is the shooter’s responsibility to get the declaration before the shot. Playing away from a frozen ball does not constitute having hit that ball unless specified in the rules of the game.

6.8 Push Shot

It is a foul to prolong tip-to-cue-ball contact beyond that seen in normal shots.

6.9 Balls Still Moving

It is a foul to begin a shot while any ball in play is moving or spinning.

6.10 Bad Cue Ball Placement

When the cue ball is in hand and restricted to the area behind the head string, it is a foul to play the cue ball from on or below the head string. If the shooter is uncertain whether the cue ball has been placed behind the head string, he may ask the referee for a determination.

6.11 Bad Play from Behind the Head String

When the cue ball is in hand behind the head string, and the first ball the cue ball contacts is also behind the head string, the shot is a foul unless the cue ball crosses the head string before that contact. If such a shot is intentional, it is unsportsmanlike conduct. The cue ball must either cross the head string or contact a ball in front of or on the head string or the shot is a foul, and the cue ball is in hand for the following player according to the rules of the specific game. If such shot is intentional, it is also unsportsmanlike conduct.

6.12 Cue Stick on the Table

If the shooter uses his cue stick in order to align a shot by placing it on the table without having a hand on the stick, it is a foul.

6.13 Playing out of Turn

It is a standard foul to unintentionally play out of turn. Normally, the balls will be played from the position left by the mistaken play. If a player intentionally plays out of turn, it should be treated like 6.17 Unsportsmanlike Conduct.

6.14 Three Consecutive Fouls

If a player fouls three times without making an intervening legal shot, it is a serious foul. In games scored by the rack, such as nine ball, the fouls must be in a single rack. Some games such as eight ball do not include this rule. The referee must warn a shooter who is on two fouls when he comes to the table that he is on two fouls. Otherwise a possible third foul will be considered to be only the second.

6.15 Slow Play

If the referee feels that a player is playing too slowly, he may advise that player to speed up his play. If the player does not speed up, the referee may impose a shot clock on that match that applies to both players. If the shooter exceeds the time limit specified for the tournament, a standard foul will be called and the incoming player is rewarded according to the rules applicable to the game being played. (Rule 6.17 Unsportsmanlike Conduct may also apply.)

6.16 Ball Rack Template Foul

It is a foul when a Ball Rack Template, removed from the playing surface, interferes with the game i.e. if the template is lying on the rail and a ball (cue or object ball) touches the template that is lying on the rail.

6.17 Unsportsmanlike Conduct

The normal penalty for unsportsmanlike conduct is the same as for a serious foul, but the referee may impose a penalty depending on his judgment of the conduct. Among other penalties possible are a warning; a standard-foul penalty, which will count as part of a threefoul sequence if applicable; a serious-foul penalty; loss of a rack, set or match; ejection from the competition possibly with forfeiture of all prizes, trophies and standings points. Unsportsmanlike conduct is any intentional behavior that brings disrepute to the sport or which disrupts or changes the game to the extent that it cannot be played fairly. It includes

(a) distracting the opponent;
(b) changing the position of the balls in play other than by a shot;
(c) playing a shot by intentionally miscuing;
(d) continuing to play after a foul has been called or play has been suspended;
(e) practicing during a match;
(f) marking the table;
(g) delay of the game; and
(h) using equipment inappropriately.

7. Rules/Regulations for Wheelchair Competition

7.1 Player’s Eligibility

The criteria for a player to be eligible for Wheelchair competition is that he must be wheelchair mobility dependent for a minimum of 80% of the time. In some cases, a doctor’s letter may be required to determine eligibility.

7.2 Violations Resulting in Fouls

(a) The shooter must remain seated while playing a shot (at least one cheek on the seat or seat pad). If a seat pad is used, it must remain flat and cover the seat of the wheelchair evenly. The seat pad cannot be bunched up on the seat straddled by the shooter with the shooter’s legs or stumps. The shooter may not sit on the wheel or armrest. The point where the shooter’s buttocks rest on the seat or seat pad must not be higher than 27 in / 68.5 cm from the surface on which the wheelchair rolls in its normal operating position.

(b) Players must not have their foot/feet on the floor while playing a shot. Players must not use their legs or stumps as a leverage against any part of the table or the wheelchair while playing a shot.

(c) Players are permitted to use any help aids such as cue extensions, special bridges, etc. Players may not be assisted when actually shooting (however, another person may hold the bridge, but must not help with the stroke of the cue). If a player requires assistance to roll around the table, another person may help them, but must not be touching the wheelchair during the actual shot.

Violations of the above are considered to violate 6.17 Unsportsmanlike Conduct and will typically be penalized as follows: 1st offense, cue ball in hand for the opponent anywhere on the table; 2nd offense, loss of the current game; 3rd offense, loss of the match. The referee may choose a different penalty depending on the nature of the offense.

7.3 Wheelchair Requirements

No standing wheelchairs may be used in the standing position. A player’s wheelchair should be clean and in good working order.

8. Definitions Used in the Rules

The following definitions apply throughout these rules.

8.1 Parts of the Table

The following definitions apply throughout these rules.

WPA Pool | Rules

The following definitions of parts of the table refer to the accompanying diagram. Some details of exact size and placement are in the WPA Equipment Specifications. See the WPA website at www.wpa-pool.com for current information.

The table is comprised of rails, cushions, a playing surface and pockets. The foot end of the table is where the object balls usually begin, while the head end is where the cue ball usually begins.

Behind the head string is the area between the head rail and the head string, not including the head string.

The cushions, tops of the rails, pockets and pocket liners are parts of the rails.
There are four “strings” on the playing surface as shown in the diagram:

  • the long string down the center of the table;
  • the head string bounding the quarter of the table closest to the head rail;
  • the foot string bounding the quarter of the table closest to the foot rail; and
  • the center string between the two side pockets.

These lines are only marked as mentioned below.
The rails may have inlays referred to as diamonds or sights which mark 1/4th of the width and
1/8th of the length of the table measured from nose to nose on the cushions.
On the playing surface, which is the flat, cloth-covered part of the table, the following will be marked if they are used in the game being played:

  • the foot spot, where the foot string and the long string meet;
  • the head spot, where the head string and the long string meet;
  • the center spot, where the center string and the long string meet;
  • the head string;
  • the long string between the foot spot and the foot rail; and
  • the triangle, either in outline or by alignment marks depending on the game.

8.2 Shot

A shot begins when the tip contacts the cue ball due to a forward stroke motion of the cue stick. A shot ends when all balls in play have stopped moving and spinning. A shot is said to be legal if the shooter did not foul during the shot.

8.3 Ball Pocketed

A ball is pocketed if it comes to rest in a pocket below the playing surface or enters the ball return system. A ball near the brink of a pocket partly supported by another ball is considered pocketed if removal of the supporting ball would cause the ball to fall into the pocket. If a ball stops near the edge of a pocket, and remains apparently motionless for five seconds, it is not considered pocketed if it later falls into the pocket by itself. See 1.7 Balls Settling for other details. During that five second period, the referee should ensure that no other shot is taken. An object ball that rebounds from a pocket back onto the playing surface is not a pocketed ball. If the cue ball contacts an already pocketed ball, the cue ball will be considered pocketed whether it rebounds from the pocket or not. The referee will remove pocketed object balls from full or nearly full pockets, but it is the shooter’s responsibility to see that this duty is performed.

8.4 Driven to a Rail

A ball is said to be driven to a rail if it is not touching that rail and then touches that rail. A ball touching a rail at the start of a shot (said to be “frozen” to the rail) is not considered driven to that rail unless it leaves the rail and returns. A ball that is pocketed or driven off the table is also considered to have been driven to a rail. A ball is assumed not to be frozen to any rail unless it is declared frozen by the referee, the shooter, or the opponent. See also Regulation 29, Calling Frozen Balls.

8.5 Driven off the Table

A ball is considered driven off the table if it comes to rest other than on the playing surface but is not pocketed. A ball is also considered driven off the table if it would have been driven off the table except for striking an object such as a light fixture, piece of chalk or a player which causes it to return to the table.

A ball that contacts the top of the rail is not considered to have been driven off the table if it returns to the playing surface or enters a pocket.

8.6 Scratch

A shot on which the cue ball is pocketed is called a scratch.

8.7 Cue Ball

The cue ball is the ball that is struck by the shooter at the beginning of a shot. It is traditionally white, but may be marked by a logo or spots. In pocket billiard games, a single cue ball is used by both players.

8.8 Object Balls

The object balls are struck by the cue ball with the usual intent of driving them into pockets. They are typically numbered from one to the number of balls used in the game. Colors and markings of the object balls are covered under the WPA Equipment Specifications.

8.9 Set

In some matches, the match is divided into parts called sets, with a certain number of sets won required to win the match. In turn, a certain number of points or racks won is required to win each set.

8.10 Rack

The rack is the framing device, typically triangular, used to arrange the object balls for the break shot at the start of the game. It also refers to the group of balls so arranged. To rack the object balls is to group them with the rack. A rack is also a portion of a match played with a single rack of object balls. Some games, such as nine ball, are scored at one point per rack.

8.11 Break

A break shot is the opening shot of a match or rack, depending on the game. It happens when the object balls have been racked and the cue ball is played from behind the head string usually with the intent of breaking the rack apart.

8.12 Inning

An inning is a player’s turn at the table. It begins when it is legal for him to take a shot, and ends at the end of a shot when it is no longer legal for him to take a shot. In some games a player may choose not to come to the table in certain situations when play would normally pass to him, and then the player remaining at the table continues the inning (e.g. a push-out at nine ball). The player whose turn it is to play is called the “shooter.”

8.13 Position of Balls

The position of a ball is determined by the projection of its center vertically downward onto the playing surface. A ball is said to be placed on a line or spot when its center is placed directly over that line or spot.

8.14 Re-spotting Balls

In some games, object balls are required to be placed on the playing surface other than when forming a new rack. They are said to be re-spotted when they are so placed. See 1.4 Spotting Balls.

8.15 Restoring a Position

If the balls are disturbed, the rules of the game may require them to be replaced where they were. The referee will replace the balls to their original position as accurately as possible.

8.16 Jump Shot

A jump shot is one in which the cue ball is made to go over an intervening obstacle such as an object ball or part of the cushion. Whether such a shot is legal depends on how it is accomplished and the intention of the shooter. Usually a legal jump shot is played by elevating the cue stick and driving the cue ball down into the playing surface from which it rebounds.

8.17 Safety Shot

A shot is said to be a safety shot if the game in play is a call shot game and the shooter declared the shot to the referee or his opponent to be a “safety” before the shot. Play passes to the other player at the end of a safety shot.

8.18 Miscue

A miscue occurs when the cue tip slides off the cue ball possibly due to a contact that is too eccentric or to insufficient chalk on the tip. It is usually accompanied by a sharp sound and evidenced by a discoloration of the tip. Although some miscues involve contact of the side of the cue stick with the cue ball, unless such contact is clearly visible, it is assumed not to have occurred. A scoop shot, in which the cue tip contacts the playing surface and the cue ball at the same time and this causes the cue ball to rise off the cloth, is treated like a miscue. Note that intentional miscues are covered by 6.17 Unsportsmanlike Conduct (c).

9. Ten Ball

Ten ball is a call shot game played with ten object balls numbered one through ten and the cue ball. The balls are played in ascending numerical order and the lowest numbered ball must be contacted by the cue ball in order to establish a legal hit. If the ten ball is pocketed on a legal break shot, it will be re-spotted and the player continues with his inning. Only one ball may be called on each shot, except on the break shot where no ball may be called. (See 9.5 Call Shots & Pocketing Balls).

9.1 Determining the Break

The player who wins the lag chooses who will break the first rack. (See 1.2 Lagging to Determine Order of Play.) The standard format is to alternate the break, but See Regulation 15, Subsequent Break Shots.

9.2 Ten Ball Rack

The object balls are racked as tightly as possible in a triangular shape, with the one ball at the apex of the triangle and on the foot spot and the ten ball in the middle of the triangle. The other balls will be placed in the triangle without purposeful or intentional pattern. (See Regulation 4, Ball Rack Template.)

WPA Pool | Rules

9.3 Legal Break Shot

The following rules apply to the break shot:
(a) the cue ball begins in hand behind the head string; and
(b) if no ball is pocketed, at least four object balls must be driven to one or more rails, or the shot is a foul. (See Regulation 17, Open Break Requirements.)

9.4 Second Shot of the Rack – Push Out

If no foul is committed on the break shot, the shooter may choose to play a “push out” as his shot. He must make his intention known to the referee, and then rules 6.2 Wrong Ball First and 6.3 No Rail after Contact are suspended for the shot. If no foul is committed on a push out, the other player chooses who will shoot next. The ten ball pocketed during a Push Out is re-spotted, without penalty

9.5 Call Shots & Pocketing Balls

Whenever the shooter is attempting to pocket a ball (except the break) he is required to call shots, the intended ball and pocket must be indicated for each shot if they are not obvious. Details of the shot, such as cushions struck or other balls contacted or pocketed are irrelevant.

For a called shot to count, the referee must be satisfied that the intended shot was made, so if there is any chance of confusion, e.g. with bank, combination and similar shots, the shooter should indicate the ball and pocket. If the referee or opponent is unsure of the shot to be played, he may ask for a call.

9.6 Safety

The shooter, after the break at any time may call “safety” which permits him to make contact with the legal object ball without pocketing a ball and end his inning. However, if the shooter pockets the legal object ball the incoming player has the option to play the shot as left, or hand it back to his opponent. (See 9.7 Wrongfully Pocketed Balls which also applies during a safety.)

9.7 Wrongfully Pocketed Balls

If a player misses his intended ball and pocket, and either makes the nominated ball in the wrong pocket or pockets another ball, his inning has finished and the incoming player has the option to take the shot as is, or hand it back to his opponent.

9.8 Continuing Play

If the shooter legally pockets a called/nominated ball on a shot (except a push out, see 9.4 Second Shot of the Rack – Push Out), any additional balls pocketed remain pocketed (except the ten ball; see 9.9 Spotting Balls), and he continues at the table for the next shot. If a player nominates and legally pockets the ten ball prior to the ten ball being the last remaining ball, the ten ball is re-spotted and the shooter continues, while pocketing the ten ball as a final ball at the table, he wins the rack. If the shooter fails to pocket the called ball or fouls, play passes to the other player, and if no foul was committed, the incoming player must play the cue ball from the position left by the other player.

9.9 Spotting Balls

If the ten ball is pocketed on a foul or push out, or accidentally in the wrong pocket, or driven off the table, it is re-spotted. (See 1.4 Spotting Balls.) No other object ball is ever spotted.

9.10 Standard Fouls

If the shooter commits a standard foul, play passes to his opponent. The cue ball is in hand, and the incoming player may place it anywhere on the playing surface. (See 1.5 Cue Ball in Hand)

The following are standard fouls at ten ball:
6.1 Cue Ball Scratch or off the Table
6.2 Wrong Ball First The first object ball contacted by the cue ball on each shot must be the lowest-numbered ball remaining on the table.
6.3 No Rail after Contact
6.4 No Foot on Floor
6.5 Ball Driven off the Table The only jumped object ball that is spotted is the ten.
6.6 Touched Ball
6.7 Double Hit / Frozen Balls
6.8 Push Shot
6.9 Balls Still Moving
6.10 Bad Cue Ball Placement
6.12 Cue Stick on the Table
6.13 Playing out of Turn
6.15 Slow Play top
6.16 Ball Rack Template Foul

9.11 Serious Fouls

For 6.14 Three Consecutive Fouls, the penalty is loss of the current rack. For 6.17 Unsportsmanlike Conduct, the referee will choose a penalty appropriate given the nature of the offense.

9.12 Stalemate

If a stalemate occurs the original breaker of the rack will break again. (See 1.12 Stalemate.)

Rule Regulations

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1. ADMINISTRATIVE DISCRETION

These regulations address dress requirements, protests, scheduling issues, and other items that are not part of the actual Rules of Play but need to be regulated for the individual event. Some aspects of applying the regulations vary from tournament to tournament, such as the number of sets in a match and who breaks after the first rack at nine ball. The management of an event is entitled to enforce regulations for the event. These Regulations do not have the same force as the Rules; the Rules have priority.

2. EXCEPTIONS TO THE RULES

The actual Rules of Play may not be altered unless a specific waiver is issued by the WPA Sports Director or other WPA official for the individual event. A written explanation of any rules change should be made available at the players’ meeting.

3. DRESS CODE

Each player’s attire must always meet the level of the competition and be clean, proper and in good condition. If an athlete is unsure about the legality of his attire, the athlete should approach the tournament director before the match and ask whether the attire is legal. The tournament director has the final say with regards to the legality of attire. In exceptional circumstances, the director may permit a player to compete in violation of the dress code e.g. when airline luggage has been misplaced. A player may be disqualified for dress code violation.

If there is no announcement before the event, the WPA dress code is assumed. The following are the current requirements for World Championship and World Tour events.

3.1 MEN

Men may wear either a long sleeve shirt and button-down vest or a regular collared shirt or polo shirt of any color. Shirt or polo shirt must be tucked in. It must be in a good condition and clean. No T-shirts are allowed. The shirt must have at least a short sleeve.

Dress pants will be clean and in good condition and may be of any color. Denim/blue jeans of any color are forbidden even though a jeans design is allowed.

Shoes must be elegant dress shoes that fit in the outfit. Sneakers and sandals are not allowed. Sports shoes with a dark top of leather or leather-like material are allowed but are subject to the tournament director’s discretion.

3.2 WOMEN

Women may wear a shirt, an elegant top, a dress, a blouse or a polo shirt which is covering the shoulders. T-shirts are not permitted.

Dress pants will be clean and in good condition and may be of any color. Denim/blue jeans of any color are forbidden even though a jeans design is allowed. Female athletes may wear a skirt which must cover the knees.

Shoes must be elegant dress shoes that fit in the outfit. Sneakers and sandals are not allowed. Sports shoes with a dark top of leather or leather-like material are allowed but are subject to the tournament director’s discretion.

4. BALLS RACK TEMPLATE

The Ball Rack Template can be used for the disciplines: 8-ball, 9-ball and 10-ball. In 14/1 it´s not allowed to use the Ball Rack Template.

4.1 POSITIONING OF THE BALL RACK TEMPLATE

The table must be marked before the tournament has started. A Vertical line must be drawn for the positioning of the Ball Rack Template. This line must be long enough to pass through the top and bottom holes on the Ball Rack Template.

4.2 REMOVING OF THE BALL RACK TEMPLATE

After the break, the Ball Rack Template must be removed by the referee from the table as soon as possible without disturbing any of the balls. If a referee is not present and there are balls obstructing the removal of the Ball Rack Template, the opponent must be the one to remove the Ball Rack Template. If there are no obstructions, the player at the table may remove the Ball Rack Template without the opponent interfering.

With or without a referee present, the Ball Rack Template can only be removed if not more than 2 balls are an obstruction in its removal. Exception to this rule applies if 1 or more balls are frozen and obstructing the removal, in this case the Ball Rack Template stays in place until such time that the frozen balls are no longer an obstacle in the removal of the Ball Rack Template.
With the removal of the Ball Rack Template, the referee or opponent may use markers in the form of ball markers or chalk blocks which are at their disposal to mark the obstructing balls. The Ball Rack Template must be placed in its required spot away from the playing area including the rails and the balls placed back into their original position.

4.3 SPECIFICATION FOR BALL RACK TEMPLATE

Ball Rack template should be made of a plastic material, no thicker than 0.14 mm and shouldn’t affect the table in any way. Template may not be glued on the playing surface.

5. PLAYING WITH AN “AREA” REFEREE

It may be that a tournament is being played with “area” referees who are each responsible for several tables and there is no referee constantly at each table. In this case, the players are still expected to observe all the rules of the game. The recommended way to conduct play in this situation is as follows.
The non-shooting player will perform all of the duties of the referee. If, prior to a particular shot, the shooting player feels that his opponent will not be able to properly judge the shot, he should ask the area referee to watch the shot. The non-shooting player may also ask for such attention if he feels that he is unable or is unwilling to rule on the shot. Either player has the power to suspend play until he is satisfied with the way the match is being refereed.

If a dispute arises between two players in an unrefereed match, and the area referee is asked to make a decision without having seen the cause of the dispute, he should be careful to understand the situation as completely as possible. This might include asking trusted witnesses, reviewing video tapes, or reenacting the shot. If the area referee is asked to determine whether a foul occurred and there is no evidence of the foul except the claim of one player while the other player claims that there was no foul, then it is assumed that no foul occurred.

6. PENALIZING UNSPORTSMANLIKE CONDUCT

The rules and regulations give the referee and other officials considerable latitude in penalizing unsportsmanlike conduct. Several factors should be considered in such decisions, including previous conduct, previous warnings, how serious the offense is, and information that the players may have been given at the Players’ Meeting at the start of the tournament. In addition, the level of competition may be considered since players at the top levels can be expected to be fully familiar with the rules and regulations, while relative beginners may be unfamiliar with how the rules are normally applied.

7. PROTEST RULING

If a player needs a decision to be taken, the first person to be contacted is the referee. The referee will form his decision by all means that seem suitable to him. If the player wants to protest against that ruling, he may contact the head referee and after that the tournament director. In any regular tournament, the tournament director’s decision is binding and final. In the WPA World Championships, there may be a further appeal to the WPA Sports Director, if he is present. A deposit of $100 from the protestor is required for such an appeal and it will be forfeited in case of an adverse final decision.

A player is allowed to ask for a reconsideration of a factual decision by the referee only one time. If he asks for reconsideration of the same matter a second time, it will be treated as unsportsmanlike conduct.

8. INSTRUCTIONS FOR REFEREES

The referee will determine all matters of fact relating to the rules, maintain fair playing conditions, call fouls, and take other action as required by these rules. The referee will suspend play when conditions do not permit fair play. Play will also be suspended when a call or ruling is being disputed. The referee will announce fouls and other specific situations as required by the rules. He will answer questions as required by the rules on matters such as foul count. He must not give advice on the application of the rules, or other points of play on which he is not required by the rules to speak. He may assist the player by getting and replacing the mechanical bridge. If necessary for the shot, the referee or a deputy may hold the light fixture out of the way.
When a game has a three-foul rule, the referee should note to the players any second foul at the time that it occurs and also when the player who is on two fouls returns to the table. The first warning is not required by the rules but is meant to prevent later misunderstandings. If there is a scoreboard on which the foul count is visible to the players, it satisfies the warning requirement.

9. REFEREE’S RESPONSIVENESS

The referee shall answer players’ inquiries regarding objective data, such as whether a ball will be in the rack, whether a ball is behind the head string, what the count is, how many points are needed for a victory, if a player or his opponent is on a foul, what rule would apply if a certain shot is made, etc. When asked for a clarification of a rule, the referee will explain the applicable rule to the best of his ability, but any misstatement by the referee will not protect a player from enforcement of the actual rules. The referee must not offer or provide any subjective opinion that would affect play, such as whether a good hit can be made on a prospective shot, whether a combination can be made, or how the table seems to be playing, etc.

10. 8-BALL ADDENDUM

If the groups have been determined and the player mistakenly shoots at and pockets a ball of the opponent’s group, the foul must be called before he takes his next shot. Upon recognition by either player or the referee that the groups have been reversed, the rack will be halted and will be replayed with the original player executing the break shot.

11. RESTORING A POSITION

In any case a position of balls needs to be amended it is solely the referee’s duty and responsibility to perform this task. He may form his opinion by any means he considers appropriate at the time. He may consult one or both players on that, however, the particular player’s opinion is not binding and his judgment can be amended. Each involved player has the right to dispute the referee’s judgment just once, but after that it is the referee’s discretion to restore the ball or balls.

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12. ACCEPTANCE OF EQUIPMENT

After the tournament or a particular match has been started, the player has no right to question the quality or legality of any equipment provided by the Tournament Organizer unless supported by the referee or the tournament director; any protests must be made beforehand.

13. CLEARING POCKETS

For the ball to be considered pocketed, it must meet all the requirements described in Rule 8.3 Ball Pocketed. Although the task of clearing pockets of balls lies within the referee’s description of duties, the ultimate responsibility for any occurrence of fouls as a result of such misadministration always rests with the shooter. If the referee is absent, for example in the case of an area referee, the shooter may perform this duty himself, providing he makes his intention clear and obvious to the opponent.

14. TIME OUT

Unless specified otherwise by the tournament organizer, each player is allowed to take one time out of five minutes during matches played over 9 (for eight ball and ten ball) and 13 (for nine ball) games. If matches are shorter there is no time out. To exercise his right to a time out the player must:

(1) inform the referee of his intention and,
(2) make sure the referee is aware of the fact and marks it on the score sheet and,
(3) make sure the referee marks the table for suspended play. (The standard procedure will be to place a cue stick on the table.)

The opponent must remain seated as during normal play; should he involve himself in an action other than standard match-playing activities it will be considered exercising his time out and no further time out will be allowed.

The time out at eight ball and nine ball is taken between racks and play is suspended.
At 14.1, the time out begins between racks; and the player at the table may continue his inning should the opponent decide to take his time out. If the non-shooter takes a time out, he must make sure there is a referee to supervise the table during his absence; otherwise he has no right to protest against any misplay by the player at the table.

The player taking the time out should remember that his actions must be within the spirit of the game and if he acts otherwise, he is subject to a penalty under the Unsportsmanlike Conduct.
If a player is suffering from a medical condition, the tournament director may choose to adjust the number of time outs.

15. SUBSEQUENT BREAK SHOTS

For deciding who will break in racks after the first, in games such as nine ball, the tournament management may choose a procedure different from the standard one listed in the Rules. For example, the winner may break or the players may alternate “serves” of three consecutive breaks.

16. RACK AT NINE BALL

As stated in Rule 2.2, balls other than the one and nine are placed randomly in the rack and should not be set in any particular order during any rack. If the referee is not racking, and a player believes that his opponent is intentionally placing balls within the rack, he may bring this to the attention of a tournament official. If the tournament official determines that the player is intentionally positioning balls in the rack, the player will be given an official warning to refrain from doing so. Once warned, should the player continue with intentional positioning of balls in the rack, he shall be penalized for unsportsmanlike conduct.

17. OPEN BREAK REQUIREMENTS

The tournament management may set additional requirements on the break shot on games that require an “open” break such as nine ball. For example, it may be required to drive three balls above the head string or pocket them.

18. THE THREE POINT BREAK RULE

(1) On the break shot, a minimum of three object balls must either be pocketed, or touch the head string line, or a combination of both. For example, if one object ball is pocketed, then at least two object balls must touch the head string line; or if two object balls are pocketed, then at least one object ball must touch the head string line.

To touch the head string line means that the edge of the object ball must reach (break) the string line.

(2) If a player fails to meet the requirements in (1), but otherwise makes a legal break, the incoming player has the choice to accept the tables as is, or hand the shot back to his opponent.

(3) In accepting the table as is, the incoming player is not permitted to play a “push-out”, he must play a legal shot to the ball on.

(4) If the table is handed back to the breaker, the breaker is permitted to play a push-out. If so, his opponent will then have the choice to either play the shot, or hand it back.

(5) If a player fails to meet the requirements of (1), but otherwise makes a legal break and pockets the 9 ball, the 9 ball is reposted before the next shot is played.

The three point rule must be present on all WPA ranking 9-ball events, together with tapping or ball rack.

19. DEFLECTING CUE BALL ON OPENING BREAK

It may be that the player miscues on a break shot and tries to prevent the cue ball from following its normal path by deflecting it with his cue stick or by some other means. This practice and other similar practices are absolutely forbidden under the unsportsmanlike conduct rule, Rule 6.16(b). Players must never intentionally touch any ball in play except with a forward stroke of the cue tip on the cue ball. The penalty for such a foul will be determined by the referee according to the unsportsmanlike conduct guidelines in Rule 6.16.

20. SHOT CLOCK

A shot clock may be requested at any time during a match by a tournament official or either player involved in that match. The tournament director or other appointed official decides whether to use a shot clock or not. Should a shot clock be introduced, both players will be “on the clock” and there will be an official timekeeper for the duration of the match. As a recommendation, players will have 35 seconds per shot with a warning when 10 seconds remain. Each player will be allowed one 25-second extension during each rack. The shot clock will be started when all balls come to rest, including spinning balls. The shot clock will end when the cue tip strikes the cue ball to initiate a stroke or the when player’s time expires from the shot clock. If a player runs out of time, it will be a standard foul. After the opening shot the time cap may be extended but cannot exceed the 60 seconds.

21. CUE BALL FOULS ONLY

If there is no referee presiding over a match, it may be played using cue ball fouls only. That is, touching or moving any ball other than the cue ball would not be a foul unless it changes the outcome of the shot by either touching another ball or having any ball, including the cue ball, going through the area originally occupied by the moved ball. If this does not happen, then the opposing player must be given the option of either leaving the ball where it lies or replacing the ball as near as possible to its original position to the agreement of both players. If a player shoots without giving his opponent the option to replace, it will be a foul resulting in cue ball in hand for the opponent.

22. LATE START

Players must be at the table and ready to play their assigned match at the appointed match time. If a player is late for his appointed match time, he will have fifteen minutes to report to his assigned table ready to play or he will lose the match. It is recommended to announce after five minutes a first call for the player, after ten minutes a second call and after fourteen minutes a final “one minute” warning. A stricter requirement may be used for repeat offenders.

23. OUTSIDE INTERFERENCE

See Rule 1.9, Outside Interference. The referee should ensure that interference is prevented, for example by a spectator or a player on an adjacent table, and may suspend play as needed. Interference may be physical or verbal.

24. COACHING

It is permitted for a player to receive advice from a coach during a match. This should not be on a continuous shot-by-shot basis that changes the nature of the game. It is up to the referee and tournament management to set additional limits on this. A time out can be used to get coaching help. The coach should not approach the table. If the referee decides that the coach is interfering with or disrupting the match, he may direct the coach to stay away from the match.

25. ACT OF GOD

It may be that something unforeseen under these rules will occur during a match. In such a case, the referee will decide how to proceed in a fair manner. For example, it may be necessary to move a rack in progress to a different table, in which case a stalemate may be declared if a position cannot be transferred.

26. REMAINING IN PLAYER’S CHAIR

The non-shooting player should remain in his designated chair while his opponent is at the table. Should a player need to leave the playing area during matches, he must request and receive permission from the referee. Should a player leave the playing area without the permission of the referee, it will be treated like unsportsmanlike conduct.

27. SPLIT HITS

If the cue ball strikes a legal object ball and a non-legal object ball at approximately the same instant, and it cannot be determined which ball was hit first, it will be assumed that the legal target was struck first.

28. CALLING FROZEN BALLS

The referee should be careful to inspect and announce the status of any object ball that might be frozen to a cushion and the cue ball when it might be frozen to a ball. The seated player may remind the referee that such a call is necessary. The shooter must allow time for such a determination to be asked for and made, and may ask for the call himself.

SPORTS REGULATIONS

EQUIPMENT SPEC

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1. PURPOSE

The purpose of these specifications shall be to set standards for equipment used at all WPA World Championships, WPA World Tour events and other WPA sanctioned and/or recognized events. These specifications do not necessarily apply to tables manufactured for commercial home use. At its sole discretion, the World Pool-Billiard Association can sanction tournaments on tables not in compliance with these specifications.

2. TABLE BED HEIGHT

Shall be between 29 ¼ inches [74.295 cm] and 31 inches [78.74 cm].

3. DESIGN

Shall not have any sharp edges or materials that might cause injuries or damage clothes. Construction should be adequate enough so that the table will remain stable and level under all conditions of play.

4. SLATES

The thickness must be at least 1 inch [2.54 cm], and the playing surface must be capable, either by its own strength or a combination of its strength and that of the table base frame, of maintaining an overall flatness within + .020 inches [.508 mm] lengthwise and + .010 inches [.254 mm] across the width. Further this surface should have an additional deflection not to exceed .030 inches [.762 mm] when loaded with a concentrated static force of 200 pounds [90.7 kg] at its center. All slate joints must be in the same plane within .005 inch [.127 mm] after leveling and shimming. Tournament tables must have a set of slates consisting of three pieces of equal size with wooden frame of at least ¾ inch [1.905 cm] thick lumber attached underneath the slate. The slate sections must be secured to the base frame with countersunk screws or bolts.

5. PLAYING SURFACE

The playing surface (area) must be rectangular, and symmetrical when the pocket configurations are included:
9 foot – 100 (+ 1/8) x 50 (+ 1/8) inches (except cushions)/ [2.54 m (+
3.175 mm) x 1.27 m (+ 3.175 mm)]
8 foot – 92 (+ 1/8) x 46 (+ 1/8) inches (except cushions)/ [2.3368 m (+
3.175 mm) x 1.1684 m (+ 3.175 mm)]

6. RAIL AND CUSHION

The rail width must be between 4 [10.16 cm] and 7 ½ inches [19.05 cm] including the rubber cushions. 18 sights (or 17 and a name plate) shall be attached flush on the rail cap with:

12 ½ inches [31.75 cm] from sight to sight on a 9-foot regulation table
11 ½ inches [29.20 cm] from sight to sight on a 8-foot regulation table.

The center of each sight should be located 3 11/16 (+ ) inches [93.6625 mm (+ 3.175 mm)] from the nose of the cushion. The sights may be round (between 7/16 [11.11 mm] and ½ inch [12.7 mm] in diameter) or diamond-shaped (between 1 x 7/16 [25.4 x 11.11 mm] and 1 ¼ x 5/8 inch [31.75 x 15.875 mm]). Any nameplates and score counters should be flush level with rail top. All rail bolts should be thus located that when properly torqued render a quiet and optimum rebound from any point of the cushion nose of the table.

7. HEIGHT OF THE CUSHION

Rubber cushions should be triangular in shape with the width of the cloth-covered cushion being between 1 7/8 [4.76 cm] and 2 inches [5.40 cm] measured from the outer edge of the featherstrip to the nose of the cushion. Rail height (nose-line to table-bed) should be 63 ½% (+1 %) or between 62 ½% and 64 ½ % of the diameter of the ball.

8. CUSHION RUBBER

Table cushions should influence the speed of the table such that with placement of a ball on the head spot, shooting through the foot spot, using center ball english, with a level cue and firm stroke, the ball must travel a minimum of 4 to 4 ½ lengths of the table without jumping.

9. POCKET OPENINGS AND MEASUREMENTS

Only rubber facings of minimum 1/16 [1.5875 mm] to maximum ¼ inch [6.35 mm] thick may be used at pocket jaws. The WPA-preferred maximum thickness for facings is 1/8 inch [3.175 mm]. The facings on both sides of the pockets must be of the same thickness. Facings must be of hard re-enforced rubber glued with strong bond to the cushion and the rail, and adequately fastened to the wood rail liner to prevent shifting. The rubber of the facings should be somewhat harder than that of the cushions.

The pocket openings for pool tables are measured between opposing cushion noses where the direction changes into the pocket (from pointed lip to pointed lip). This is called mouth.

Corner Pocket Mouth: between 4.5 [11.43 cm] and 4.625 inches [11.75 cm]
Side Pocket Mouth: between 5 [12.7 cm] and 5.125 inches [13.0175 cm]
*The mouth of the side pocket is traditionally ½ inch [1.27 cm] wider than
the mouth of the corner pocket.

Vertical Pocket Angle (Back Draft): 12 degrees minimum to15 degrees maximum.

Horizontal Pocket Cut Angle: The angle must be the same on both sides of a pocket entrance. The cut angles of the rubber cushion and its wood backing (rail liner) for both sides of the corner pocket entrance must be 142 degrees (+1). The cut angles of the rubber cushion and its wood backing (rail liner) for both sides of the side pocket entrance must be 104 degrees (+1).

Shelf: The shelf is measured from the center of the imaginary line that goes from one side of the mouth to the other – where the nose of the cushion changes direction – to the vertical cut of the slate pocket cut. Shelf includes bevel.

Corner Pocket Shelf: between 1 [2.54 cm] and 2 ¼ inches [5.715 cm]
Side Pocket Shelf: between 0 and .375 inches [.9525 cm]

10. POCKET LINERS

The pocket liners and boots should be of long wearing plastic, rubber or leather. The material the liners and boots are made of should not permanently mark (stain) the balls or cues. The upper part of the inner wall must be so fashioned that whenever a ball hits the pocket liner wall below the rim at the top of the rail, the ball is directed downwards.

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11. BALL RETURN AND DROP POCKETS

Both drop pockets and automatic ball returns can be used, but must be as noiseless as possible. Drop pockets must have a basket capacity of at least 6 balls. Automatic ball returns must be properly installed so that pocketed balls are not trampolined back to the table or off the table.

12. CLOTH

The cloth must be non-directional, nap-free billiard fabric which will not pill or fluff, composed of composed of between 80% and 85% combed worsted wool, and between 15% to 20% nylon. 100% combed worsted wool fabric is preferred. No backed cloth will be allowed. Only the colors of yellow-green, blue-green or electric blue are acceptable for WPA competition.

13. FASTENING OF THE CLOTH (GUIDELINES)

Before cloth-covering the slate, a strip of canvas (or table-cloth) should be glued to the vertical pocket cuts of the slates and their underlying wooden slate liner. The table-bed cloth must be stretched for “proper tension” and mechanically attached to the underlying wooden slate liner with fully driven fasteners (staples or tacks) spaced a maximum of 1 inch on center approximately, with at least inch [.9525 cm] penetration into
the wooden slate liner. Guidelines for proper tension are as follow:

1. Length of the cloth should be manually stretched as tight as possible,
and then relieved ½ inch [1.27 cm] before attachment, and
2. Width of the cloth should be manually stretched as tight as possible,
and then relieved ¼ inch [.635 cm] before attachment.

When covering the cushions, the cloth must be lengthwise evenly and consistently well-stretched while inserting the featherstrip as well as thereafter. While the cloth is in a stretched condition lengthwise, the cloth must then be stretched in the width up to the moment when indentation of the nose of the rubber cushion is about to start and attached underneath the wooden rail with fully driven fasteners (staples or tacks) spaced a
maximum of 3/4 inch [1.905 cm] on center approximately, with at least 3/8 inch [.9525 cm] penetration into the wood. At the side pocket openings, the rails are to be covered with a minimum overlapping of fabric over the facings. When doing overlappings, great care must be taken so that hidden folds, if any, do not cause balls to jump off the table during play. No folds are allowed in the cloth over the facings of the corner pockets.

14. CLEANING TABLE AND RAIL CLOTH (ADVISED PREPARATION)

The WPA recommends only the colors green and blue for chalk. A soft (horse hair) brush, a cloth-cleaner made with billiard fabric, or a brushless (without rotating brush) vacuum cleaner are the recommended table and cushion cleaning devices. Brushes that shed bristles are not recommended.

15. LIGHTS

The bed and rails of the table must receive at least 520 lux (48 footcandles) of light at every point. A screen or reflector configuration is advised so that the center of the table does not receive noticeably more lighting than the rails and the corners of the table. If the light fixture above the table may be moved aside (referee), the minimum height of the
fixture should be no lower than 40 inches [1.016 m] above the bed of the table. If the light fixture above the table is non-movable, the fixture should be no lower than 65 inches [1.65 m] above the bed of the table. The intensity of any directed light on the players at the table should not be blinding. Blinding light starts at 5000 lux (465 footcandles) direct view. The rest of the venue (bleachers, etc.) should receive at least 50 lux (5 footcandles) of light.

16. BALLS AND BALL RACK

All balls must be composed of cast phenolic resin plastic and measure 2 ¼ (+.005) inches [5.715 cm (+ .127 mm)] in diameter and weigh 5 ½ to 6 oz [156 to 170 gms]. Balls should be unpolished, and should also not be waxed. Balls should be cleaned with a towel or cloth free of dirt and dust, and may also be washed with soap and water. Balls contaminated with any slippery substance – treated with a polishing or rubbing compound and/or waxed – must be cleansed and dewaxed with a clean cloth moistened with diluted alcohol before play.

A complete set of pool balls consists of one white cue ball and fifteen color-coded, numbered object balls. The object balls are clearly and highly visibly numbered 1 through 15. Each object ball has its number printed twice, opposite each other, one of the two numbers upside down, black on a white round background. The object balls numbered 1 through 8 have solid colors as follows: 1=yellow, 2=blue, 3=red, 4=purple, 5=orange, 6=green, 7=maroon and 8=black. The object balls numbered 9 through 15 are white with a centered band of color as follows: 9=yellow, 10=blue, 11=red, 12=purple, 13=orange, 14=green and 15=maroon. The two printed numbers 6 and 9 are underscored.

The wooden triangular ball rack is the recommended device to be used to rack the balls to ensure that the balls are properly aligned and in contact with each other. Both surfaces that can make contact with the table-cloth when moving loaded rack to and fro, should be very smooth in order not to incur any damage to the cloth underneath. Plastic racks are not recommended, they are flexible and tend to deform, making proper racking of
balls time-consuming, if not impossible.

17. CUE STICKS

Cue Sticks used at WPA competitions should comply with the following
during play at table:

Length of Cue: 40 inches [1.016 m] minimum / No Maximum
Weight of Cue: No minimum / 25 oz. [708.75 gm] maximum
Width of Tip: No minimum / 14mm maximum

The cue tip may not be of a material that can scratch or damage the addressed ball. The cue tip on any stick must be composed of a piece of specially processed leather or other fibrous or pliable material that extends the natural line of the shaft end of the cue and contacts the cue ball when the shot is executed..

The ferrule of the cue stick, if of a metal material, may not be more than 1 inch [2.54 cm] in length.

18. MECHANICAL BRIDGE

The mechanical bridge, also called rake, crutch or rest, is an accessory of the billiard sports table and consists of a stick with a bridge head mounted at its end to support the shaft of the cue stick replacing the hand bridge during shots difficult to reach. The stick or handle of the mechanical bridge is very similar in shape to the cue stick. The bridge
head has notches or grooves, usually at various heights, in which the cue shaft can rest. The contour of the bridge head should be smooth in order not to mar the cue shaft or rip the threads of the table-cloth when being used.

19. SPACING BETWEEN TABLES

In WPA-sanctioned competitions a minimum measurement of 6 feet [1.83 m] is required between the outside edge of the table rail in every horizontal direction and obstacle (table, chair, rail, etc.).

20. TABLE RECOGNIZED BY THE WPA

Only tables that are recognized by the WPA can be used at a WPA-sanctioned or recognized event.

SANCTIONING

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INTRODUCTION

Sanctioning is an important feature of all major international pool tournaments. It is a key responsibility of the World Pool Association (WPA). This document sets out the requirements and benefits of a tournament receiving the sanction of the WPA. If further information or clarification is required, please contact the WPA by email at info@WPApool.com.

The actions of the WPA in dealing with the grant of sanctioning for a Tournament may be performed by the WPA’s Board or by the Board’s duly authorised delegate.

CATEGORIES

1. During any year there are many tournaments organised in the world of pool. The WPA itself, its Continental Members (CMs) and their members – the National Governing Bodies (NGBs) – all organise tournaments. However, the majority of the tournaments are organised by promoters.

2. There is a substantial range in the size and significance in tournaments. The tournaments are classified by the WPA into the following five categories (the “added prize money” refers to prize money in addition to entry fees):

2.1. Category 1. World Championships or Tournaments offering a minimum of USD200,001 of added prize money;

2.2. Category 2. Continental Open Championships or Tournaments offering between USD125,001 and USD200,000 of added prize money;

2.3. Category 3. Tournaments offering between USD75,001 and USD125,000 of added prize money;

2.4. Category 4. Tournaments offering between USD40,001 and USD75,000 of added prize money; and

2.5. Category 5. Tournaments offering between USD15,000 and USD40,000 of added prize money.

3. Only sanctioned Tournaments are eligible for World Ranking Points.

When does a Tournament need to be sanctioned?

4. Sanctioning is required when a Tournament is:

4.1. any of a Category 1 Tournament to Category 4 Tournament; and

4.2. a Category 5 Tournament which include players from other NGBs in other CMs that make up either eight players, or 1 /8 th of the field.

5. Sanctioning may, if requested, be granted for a Category 5 Tournament, even though it does not include players from other NGBs in other CMs that make up either eight players, or 1 /8 th of the field.

Entry & Sanction fees

6. Single entry events will be subject to an entry fee. This fee is not added to the prize fund for the purpose of calculating a sanctioning fee. The amount of the entry fee will be determined by the WPA.

7. Team events will be subject to an entry fee. This fee is not added to the prize fund for the purpose of calculating a sanctioning fee. The amount of the entry fee will be determined by the WPA.

8. A sanctioning fee is negotiated between the WPA and the Tournament Organiser but will usually be not less than 7.5% of the total added prize money in all Categories.

Procedure

9. Upon receipt of an application in writing for sanctioning, the General Secretary will:

9.1. review the proposed date in consultation with the Sports Director.

9.2. the Sports Director will either approve the proposed date or reject it and suggest alternative dates.

9.3. Once the proposed date is approved or a suggested date is agreed, the General Secretary will allocate the Tournament with a Tournament Sanction Number.

9.4. Once a Tournament Sanction Number has been allocated the General Secretary will then advise the applicant in writing of the following:

9.4.1. confirmation of the dates that are approved;

9.4.2. the Category in which the Tournament has been classified;

9.4.3. the total sanction fee;

9.4.4. the terms of payments required; and

9.4.5. a request to complete and return a Sanctioning Form within 14 days.

10. Once the above is confirmed, the Tournament Organiser will provide to the WPA General Secretary all relevant details of the Tournament, including:

10.1. Official name of the event.

10.2. Name and contact details of the organiser, including postal address, telephone/fax numbers and email address.

10.3. Name and contact details of any appointed event manager, including postal address, telephone/fax numbers and email address.

10.4. Any payments that have been made to the WPA.

11. After the WPA has issued the invoice for the sanctioning fee:

11.1. The General Secretary will ask the Sports Director to place the Tournament on the WPA Sports Calendar.

11.2. The General Secretary will send a WPA logo to the Tournament Organiser for use with Tournament related promotional/advertising purposes.

11.3. The General Secretary will request the Treasurer to advise when any payments have been made and accepted.

Escrow

12. For all new Tournament Organisers, the prize fund for their first Tournament must be secured in an escrow nominated by the WPA not less than 45 days prior to the commencement date of the Tournament. This procedure will apply to all new Tournament Organisers. It will also apply to any Tournament Organiser who hasn’t met his prize money payment within 14 days after the Tournament has concluded.

13. If the funds have not been secured in escrow within the time period, the WPA is obliged to advise the players of the situation.

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Default

14. If Tournament Organiser is in default of any of its obligations in respect of a sanctioned Tournament the WPA may, at its election with suspend the sanctioning of the Tournament until the default is remedied or at its election revoke the sanctioning of the Tournament.

Taxation

15. Where it is required for tax to be deducted from a player’s winnings, tax certificates must be issued by the Tournament Organisers to the players. Details concerning tax certificates must be included in any event information that is given to the players by the Tournament Organiser.

Notification

16. All relevant information regarding the Tournament must be available for the CMs and their NGBs to distribute to its players no less than 60 days prior to the Tournament commencing.

17. Player registration for a Tournament will occur via a facility of the WPA website.

What benefits do the organisers receive from the WPA sanction?

19. The date will be reserved and must be respected by the WPA’s CMs and their NGBs.

20. In relation to a Category 1 Tournament:

20.1. A WPA representative will be present. He will arrive 2 days before the Tournament and leave 1 day after the Tournament. The travel costs are paid by the WPA, but the accommodation costs will be paid by the Tournament Organiser. His main role is to support the Tournament Organiser, officials and the players.

20.2. The WPA supplies the medals.

20.3. If requested, referees can be provided. The costs will be divided between three partners: the Organiser, the WPA and the CM which is supplying the referee(s).

21. The Tournament information is distributed by the WPA and its CMs and their NGBs.

22. The use of the WPA logo for publicity purposes is allowed.

23. World Ranking Points are awarded.

What benefits do the host club/venue receive from the WPA sanction?

24. A sanctioned Tournament distinguishes itself from other tournament with the prestige of being recognised by the WPA. WPA sanctioned Tournaments can also unlock available funding from governments and opens more doors with corporate sponsors.

25. The host club is showcasing the best players from around the world and will be mentioned and featured in coverage of the tournament on all WPA platforms.

26. Finally, the host club has the comfort of knowing that that the highest authority of the sport will deal with any disciplinary issues that may be necessary.

What benefits do the players receive from the WPA sanction?

27. Players can be confident that the Tournament and its Organiser have been vetted by the WPA and that our world standards criteria have been being met. They can also be assured of fair play being followed from the draw to the conclusion of the finals.

28. The WPA will have an official on site to assist with any unforeseen circumstances. The WPA will also provide assistance in the event of that the Tournament Organiser has not paid the prize money in a timely fashion.

29. Players receive world ranking points from sanctioned Tournaments which helps them receive invitations to future tournaments and increases their chances of securing personal sponsors.

PYRAMID RULES

Artistic Guidelines

WPA Pool | Rules